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Home > Neuroethics > Publications
Home > Neuroethics > Publications
Research unit director



Zizzo, Natalie, Nina Di Pietro, Courtney Green, James Reynolds, Emily Bell, Eric Racine. Review and reflections on ethics in screening for biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research (accepted).

Palmour, Nicole, Brandy L.Vanderbyl, Emma Zimmerman, Serge Gauthier, Eric Racine, Alzheimer's disease dietary supplements in websites. HEC Forum (accepted).

Dubljevic, Veljko, Eric Racine. Judging deeds not psychopaths. American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience (accepted).

Bell, Emily, Veljko Dubljevic, Eric Racine. Nudging without ethical fudging: Clarifying physician obligations to avoid ethical compromise. American Journal of Bioethics (accepted).

Daoust, Ariane, Eric Racine. Depictions of “brain death” in the media: Implications for organ donation and public debate. Journal of Medical Ethics (accepted).

Gauthier, Serge, Antoine Leuzy, Eric Racine, Pedro Rosa-Neto. Diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease: Past, present and future ethical issues progress in neurobiology. Special issue on Neuroethics and Neurodegenerative Disease (accepted).

Forlini, Cynthia, Serge Gauthier, Eric Racine. Should physicians prescribe cognitive enhancers to healthy individuals? Canadian Medical Association Journal (accepted).

Emily Bell, Eric Racine, Paula Chiasson, Maya Dufourcq-Brana, Laura B. Dunn, Joseph J. Fins, Paul J. Ford, Walter Glannon, Nir Lipsman, Mary Ellen Macdonald, Mary Pat McAndrews, Debra J.H. Mathews  (2014) Beyond consent in research: Revisiting vulnerability in deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics ( in press). Supplemental material.

Forlini, Cynthia, Wayne Hall, Bruce Maxwell, Simon M. Outram, Peter B. Reiner, Dimitris Repantis, Maartje Schermer, Eric Racine. Ethical issues in research on cognitive enhancers for healthy individuals, EMBO Reports 2013; 14(2): 123-128. 

Racine, Eric, Danaë Larivière-Bastien, Emily Bell, Annette Majnemer, Michael Shevell. Respect for autonomy in the healthcare context: Observations from a qualitative study of young adults with cerebral palsy. Child: Care, Health & Development 2012, Nov 30:101111/cch.12018. (Epub ahead of print).

Maxwell, Bruce, Eric Racine. The ethics of neuroeducation: Research, practice and policy. Neuroethics, 2012; 5(2): 101-103.

Jox, Ralf J, James L. Bernat, Steven Laureys, Eric Racine. Disorders of consciousness: medical and ethical aspects of requests for novel diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Lancet Neurology 2012; 11: 732-738.

Davis, Karen D., Eric Racine, B. Collett. Neuroethical issues related to the use of brain imaging: Can we and should we use brain imaging as a biomarker to diagnose chronic pain? Pain 2012; 153(8): 1555-1559.

Kuehlmeyer, Katja, Eric Racine, Nicole Palmour, Eva Hoster, Gian Domenico Borasio, Ralf J. Jox. Diagnostic and ethical challenges in disorders of consciousness and locked-in-syndrome: A survey of German neurologists. Journal of Neurology 2012; 259(10): 2076-2089. (Epub ahead of print March 10, 2012:DOI 10.1007/s00415-012-6459-9).

Rodrigue, Catherine, Richard Riopelle, James L. Bernat, Eric Racine, Perspectives and experience of healthcare professionals on diagnosis, prognosis, and end-of-life decision making in patients with disorders of consciousness. Neuroethics. (Epub ahead of print: Online First, November 24, 2011:DOI 10.1007/s12152-011-9142-4).

Racine, Eric, Tessa Wallace, Lucie Wade, Emily Bell, Isabelle Chouinard. Proven or unproven? Panel report on ethics in the translation of neuroscience. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2012, Mar; 39(2) :247-50.

Racine, Eric, Emily Bell. Responding ethically to patient and public expectations about psychiatric DBS. AJOB Neuroscience 2012; 3(1): 21-29.

Demertzi, Athena,* Eric Racine,* Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Didier Ledoux, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie Thonnard, Andrea Soddu, Gustave Moonen, Steven Laureys. Pain perception in disorders of consciousness: Neuroscience, clinical care, and ethics in dialogue. Neuroethics 2012. (Epub ahead of print, January 4 DOI: 10.1007/s12152-011-9149-x).

Forlini, Cynthia, Eric Racine, Added stakeholders, added value(s) to the cognitive enhancement debate: Are academic discourse and professional policies sidestepping values of stakeholders? AJOB Primary Research 2012; 3(1): 33-47.

Zimmerman, Emma, Eric Racine. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: A policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research. Accountability in Research 2012; 19: 27-46.

Bell, Emily, Tessa Wallace, Isabelle Chouinard, Michael Shevell, Eric Racine. Responding to requests of families for unproven interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders: Hyperbaric oxygen “treatment” and stem cell “therapy” in cerebral palsy, Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 2011; 17(1): 19-26. (DOI: 10.1002/ddrr.134).

Bell, Emily, Bruce Maxwell, Mary Pat MacAndrews, Abbas Sadikot, Eric Racine. Ethical issues in psychiatric applications of deep brain stimulation: Learning from Canadian healthcare providers. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 2011; 6: 1-10.

Palmour, Nicole, Eric Racine. Neuroscience commerce and direct to consumer marketing of dietary supplements for cognition: Parallels and potential risks. AJOB Neuroscience 2011; 2(4): 21-29.

Bell, Emily, Bruce Maxwell, Mary Pat MacAndrews, Abbas Sadikot, Eric Racine. Deep brain stimulation and ethics: Perspectives from a multi-site qualitative study of Canadian neurosurgical centers. World Neurosurgery, 2011 Dec; 76(6): 537-47.

Maxwell, Bruce, Eric Racine. Does research in affective neuroscience justify responsive early childcare? Neuroethics 2012; 5(2): 159-172.

Outram, Simon, Eric Racine. Examining reports and policies on cognitive enhancement: Approaches, rationale, and impact/recommendations. Accountability in Research 2011; 18(5): 323-341.

Larivière Bastien, Danaë, Annette Majnemer, Michael Shevell, Eric Racine. Perspectives of adolescents and young adolescents with cerebral palsy on the ethical and social challenges encountered in healthcare services. Narrative Inquiry on Bioethics: A Journal of Qualitative Research 2011; 1(1): 43-54.

Bell, Emily, Bruce Maxwell, Mary Pat MacAndrews, Abbas Sadikot, Eric Racine. A review of social and relational aspects of deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease informed by healthcare provider experiences. Parkinson's Disease 2011. Article ID 871874.  

Racine, Eric, Emily Bell, Nina C. Di Pietro, Lucie Wade, Judy Illes. Evidence-based neuroethics for neurodevelopmental disorders. Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 2011; 18(1):21-25.

Outram, Simon, Eric Racine. Public health ethics approaches to cognitive enhancement: Current models and points to consider. Public Health Ethics 2011; 4(1): 93-105.

Larivière Bastien, Danaë, Eric Racine. Ethics in healthcare services for young individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities: A focus on cerebral palsy. Journal of Child Neurology 2011; 26(10): 1221-1229.

Racine, Eric, Georg Northoff, Ravi Menon, Jonathan Kimmelman, Judy Illes. A Canadian perspective on ethics review and neuroimaging: Tensions and solutions. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2011; 38(4): 572-579.

Rodrigue, Catherine, Richard J. Riopelle, James L. Bernat, Eric Racine. Caring for patients with disorders of consciousness: Highlights from the perspectives of healthcare providers on communication and end-of-life decision making. Res Cogitans 2011; 8(1): 25-32.

Palmour, Nicole, William Affleck, Emily Bell, Constance Deslauriers, Bruce Pike, Julien Doyon, Eric Racine. Informed consent for MRI and fMRI research: Analysis of a sample of Canadian practices. BMC Medical Ethics 2011; 12: 1.

Mathieu, Ghislaine, Emily Bell, Eric Racine. Subjective outcomes measurement and regulatory oversight for deep brain stimulation outcomes in Parkinson’s’ disease. American Journal of Bioethics 2011; 2(1): 16-18.

Pellerin, Caroline, Annie Rochette, Eric Racine. Social participation of relatives post-stroke: The role of rehabilitation and related ethical issues. Disability and Rehabilitation 2011; 33(13-14): 1055-1064.

Forlini, Cynthia, Eric Racine. Cognitive enhancement and the media: Stakeholder perspectives and reactions from students, parents, and healthcare professionals. Public Understanding of Science 2010. (Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1177/0963662510385062).

Carter, Adrian, Emily Bell, Eric Racine, Wayne Hall. Ethical issues raised by proposals to treat addiction using deep brain stimulation. Neuroethics 2010; 4(2): 129-142.

Forlini, Cynthia, Eric Racine. Considering the causes and implications of ambiguity in using medicine for enhancement. American Journal of Bioethics 2011; 11(1): 15-17.

Racine, Eric, Catherine Rodrigue, James L. Bernat, Richard Riopelle, Sam D. Shemie. Observations on the ethical and social aspects of disorders of consciousness. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2010; 37: 758-768.

Racine, Eric, Marta Karczewska, Matthew Seidler, Rakesh Amaram, Judy Illes. How the public responded to the Schiavo controversy: Evidence from letters to editors. Journal of Medical Ethics 2010; 36: 571-573.

Racine, Eric, Sarah Waldman, Jarett Rosenberg, Judy Illes. Contemporary neuroscience in the media. Social Science and Medicine 2010; 71: 725-733.

Maxwell, Bruce, Eric Racine. Should empathic development be a priority in biomedical ethics teaching? A critical perspective. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2010; 19: 433-445.

Bell, Emily, Bruce Maxwell, Mary Pat MacAndrews, Abbas Sadikot, Eric Racine. Hope and patient expectation in deep brain stimulation: Healthcare provider perspectives and approaches. Journal of Clinical Ethics 2010; 21(2): 113-125.

Racine, Eric, Emily Bell, Constance Deslauriers. Canadian research ethics boards and multi-site research: Experiences from two minimal risk studies. IRB: Ethics and Human Research 2010; 32(3): 12-18.

Deslauriers, Constance, Emily Bell, Nicole Palmour, Bruce Pike, Julien Doyon, Eric Racine. Perspectives of Canadian researchers on ethics review of neuroimaging research. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics 2010; 5(1): 49-66.

Racine, Eric, Cynthia Forlini. Cognitive enhancement, lifestyle choice or misuse of prescription drugs? Ethics blind spots in current debates. Neuroethics 2010; 3(1): 1-4.

Illes, Judy, Mary Anne Moser, Jennifer B McCormick, Eric Racine, Sandra Blakeslee, Arthur Caplan, Erika Check Hayden, Jay Ingram, Tiffany Lohwater, Peter McKnight, Christie Nicholson, Anthony Phillips, Kevin D Sauvé, Elaine Snell, Samuel Weiss. Neurotalk: Improving neuroscience communication. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2010; 11(1): 61-69.

Maxwell, Bruce. Just compassion: Implications for the ethics of the scarcity paradigm in clinical healthcare provision. Journal of Medical Ethics 2009; 35(4): 219-223.

Maxwell, Bruce, Leonie LeSage. Are psychopaths morally sensitive? Journal of Moral Education 2009; 38(1): 75-91.

Racine, Eric, Cynthia Forlini. Expectations regarding cognitive enhancement create substantial challenges. Journal of Medical Ethics 2009; 35(8): 469-470.

Kêdoté, Marius N., Eric Racine, Hubert Doucet. How diabetic patients perceive the development of predictive medicine. Éthique et Santé 2009; 6: 127-133.

Bell, Emily, Ghislaine Mathieu, Eric Racine. Preparing the ethical future of deep brain stimulation. Surgical Neurology 2009; 72(6): 577-586.

Forlini, Cynthia, Eric Racine. Autonomy and coercion in academic “cognitive enhancement” using methylphenidate: Perspectives of key stakeholders. Neuroethics 2009; 2(3): 163-177.

Forlini, Cynthia, Eric Racine. Disagreements with implications: Diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement. BMC Medical Ethics 2009; 10(9):

Racine, Eric, Marie-Josée Dion, Christine A.C. Wijman, Judy Illes, Maarten Lansberg. Profiles of neurological outcome prediction among intensivists. Neurocritical Care 2009; 11(3): 345-352.

Racine, Eric, Michael Shevell. Ethics in neonatal neurology; “When is enough, enough?” Pediatric Neurology 2009; 40(3): 147-155.

Bell, Emily, Eric Racine. Enthusiasm for functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) often overlooks its dependence on task selection and performance. American Journal of Bioethics 2009; 9(1): 23.

Racine, Eric, Emily Bell. Clinical and public translation of neuroimaging research in disorders of consciousness challenges current diagnostic and public understanding paradigms. American Journal of Bioethics-Neuroscience 2008; 8(9): 13-14.

Racine, Eric, Rakesh Amaram, Matthew Seidler, Marta Karczewska, Judy Illes. Media coverage of the persistent vegetative state and end-of-life decision-making: A case analysis of Terri Schiavo. Neurology 2008; 71: 1027-1032.

Racine, Eric. Enriching our views on clinical ethics: Results of a qualitative study of the moral psychology of healthcare ethics committee members. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2008; 5: 57-67.

Racine, Eric. Interdisciplinary approaches for a pragmatic neuroethics. American Journal of Bioethics-Neuroscience 2008; 8(1): 52-53.

Racine, Eric. Which naturalism for bioethics? A defense of moderate naturalism. Bioethics 2008; 22(2): 92-100.



Bell, Emily, Eric Racine. Ethical guidance for the use of deep brain stimulation in psychiatric trials and emerging uses: Review and reflections. In Deep Brain Stimulation: A New Frontier in Psychiatry, Denys, Feenstra, and Schuurman, eds, (in press).

Racine, Eric, Maya Dufourcq-Brana, Emily Bell. Neuroethics and Alzheimer’s disease: The case of deep brain stimulation.
In Jean-Paul Tillement, Jean-Jacques Hauw et Vassilios Papadopoulos,  Alzheimer’s disease today: Synergies between France and Québec to curtail this pandemic, Lavoisier, Paris, 2012, 33-42.

Jox, Ralf, Katja Kuehlmeyer, Georg Marckmann, Eric Racine, eds, Vegetative state: A paradigmatic problem of modern societies: Medical, ethical and legal and social perspectives on chronic disorders of consciousness, LIT/Verlag, March 2012, 288 pages.

Racine, Eric, Don DuRousseau, Judy Illes. Ethical issues in performance enhancing technologies: From bench to headline, Chapter 11 (reprint).  In Neurotechnology: Premises, Potential, and Problems, J Giordano, ed., CRC Press/Taylor and Francis  2012: 175-190.

Wade, Lucie, Michael I Shevell, Eric Racine. Ethics in fetal neonatal neurology. In Acquired Brain Injury in the Fetus and Newborn, S. Mill and Michael I Shevell, eds, Wiley-Blackwell [Mackeith Press], 2012, 288-305.

Racine, Eric, Cynthia Forlini. Neuroethics: An emerging field of scholarship and practice. In Roasalie Starzomski, Jan Storch, Paddy Rodney, eds., Toward a Moral Horizon: Nursing Ethics for Leadership and Practice, Second edition, Chapter 25, Pearson Education Canada 2012, 509-536.

Racine, Eric, Emma Zimmerman. Pragmatic neuroethics and neuroscience’s potential to radically change ethics, In Melissa Littlefield and Jenell Johnson, eds., Neuroturn in the Humanities and the Social Sciences, Chapter 7, 2012, 135-151.

Racine, Eric. Neuroscience and the media: Ethical challenges and opportunities. Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics, Judy Illes and Barbara Sahakian, eds, Oxford University Press, 2011, 783-802.

Racine, Eric, Zoë Costa-von Aesch. Neuroscience’s impact on our self-identity: Perspectives from ethics and public understanding. Brainhood Project. Fernando Vidal and Francisco Ortega, eds, Peter Lang, Franfurt am Main, 2011, 83-98.

Racine, Eric. Neuroethics: Tackling the ethical and social challenges of the neuroscience revolution. In Proceedings of the second meeting of the World Congress of Scientific Research: “From the body to the body politic”, Mimesis Edizioni, Milano-Udine, 2010, 200-209.

Racine, Eric, Ofek Bar-Ilan, Judy Illes. “fMRI in the public eye”. Republished in Martha Farah, ed., Neuroethics: An Introduction with Readings, MIT Press, 2010, 185-190.

Racine, Eric, Emily Bell, Judy Illes. Can we read minds? Ethical challenges and responsibilities in the use of neuroimaging research. In J. Giordano and Bert Gordijn, eds, Neuroethics: Scientific, Philosophical, and Ethical Perspectives, Cambridge University Press, 2010, 244-270.

Racine, Eric. Pragmatic neuroethics: Improving treatment and understanding of the mind brain. MIT Press, 2010.

Racine, Eric. Recent advances in neuroethics. In Pierre Poirier and Luc Faucher, eds, Des neurones à l'esprit: philosophie des neurosciences et neurophilosophie. Paris: Éditions Syllepse, 2008, 272-292.

Racine, Eric, Judy Illes. Emergentism at the crossroads of philosophy, neurotechnology and the enhancement debate. In John Bickle, ed., Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience, 2009, 17: 431-453.

Racine, Eric, Judy Illes. Neuroethics. In Peter Singer and Adrian Viens, eds, Cambridge Textbook of Bioethics, Cambridge University Press, 2008, 63: 495-503.



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